|“نحو استراتيجية مائية في سوريا”
ندوة الثلاثاء الاقتصادية الثالثة عشرة
الأستاذ الدكتور شبلي الشامي
1 ـ 1 ـ ندرة المياه
2 ـ 1 ـ الواقع الراهن
2 ـ 2 ـ 1 ـ الأفضلية الأولى للاستعمالات البلدية (الشرب)
2 ـ 3 ـ زيادة المصادر المائية
3 ـ 1 ـ زيادة حصة سوريا من مياه الفرات
3 ـ 3 ـ 1 ـ نهر الأردن وروافده
4 ـ 1 ـ إعادة توزيع المياه
5 ـ 1 ـ حوض الفرات ودجلة
(1) تبادل المعلومات والمعرفة والقيام بالدراسات والمشاريع المشتركة
توزع الأمطار في المشرق العربي جدول رقم (9)
7 ـ 1 ـ الموضوع
7 ـ 3 ـ 1 ـ جر المياه السورية من الجولان
11 ـ الخرائط
خريطة رقم 1
Towards a water strategy in Syria
Dr. Shibli ALSHAMI
The Syrian government built 157 dams, which actually irrigate 214.3 thousand hectares, but Syria lost fertile lands to retain water. The annual waste water in the lake ASAD equal 1500 million m3 because of evaporation. Private projects irrigate 4.5 times more than public ones because of less costs, less wasting water and more productivity. Worldwide priorities of using water are drinking water, industry (which earn 30 times more than the irrigation uses), and tourism qualified as the most profitable. These uses do not significantly decrease reserves, but they change water quality (irrigation, plants, and water life-being).
In addition to the watershed and underground reserves, Syria has seven basins of water (Euphrates and Tiger, Orontes, Yarmouk, Damascus, Aleppo, Littoral, Badiah). According to the ministry of irrigation, Syria needs additional 51 km3 of water to irrigate new surfaces (487 thousand hectares). To comply with other requirements and to reach the water equilibrium, Syria must:
- Have additional 2.163 km3 a year from the Euphrates.
- Have additional fair and reasonable shares (5 km3 a year) from the Tiger and from the Jordan and its branches.
- Achieve the project of transferring the water surplus in littoral basin to the upper part of the Orontes (0.5 km3 a year) with regard to a fair share to Turkey.
- Regulate shares in Koueik River
- Shares the water of the Big South River.
The ministry of irrigation achieved a study about the future of water in Syria. It includes several measurements and recommendations:
- Redistribution of water among different uses (priority to drinking water) and recycling used water coming back from Houses and industries.
- Using classic and new techniques (agricultural cycles, improved seeds, genetic engineering, intensive agriculture, fertilizers, new techniques in irrigation etc.
- Rationalizing Water uses and raising awareness to limit water wasting and pilferage.
- Modernizing the irrigation networks, the sewage treatment stations, desalinization station by nuclear power etc.
- Developing scientific research and regional cooperation in water projects as moving water from Turkish rivers ending in the Mediterranean Sea (to the rivers of the Tiger, the Euphrates and the Orontes) to be used in the Badiah and in the Gulf.
Let us take Damascus basin as an example to explain how to build a water strategy. Only 65-70% of the total resources of this basin can be exploited (approximately, 550-595 million m3 a year). These resources include the underground classic form (renewable) and the natural reserve (non-renewable water). The latter is used in seasons of lack of rain. In Ghouta of Damascus, it is only sufficient for two years (four years in Zabadani basin). The water establishment of Damascus countryside suggests to drain water from the coast as a temporary solution, and then to drain the water from The Euphrates till 2040. And later, the desalinization of the seawater is inevitable. Also, the water establishment of Damascus forwards the same suggestion to satisfy Damascus needs of water (will attain one billion m3 a year, supposed to be sufficient till 2040).
Consequently, Superficial and internal water resources have to be identified in Damascus to sustain the development and to range priorities. The average of the available water resources in Damascus is 850 million m3 a year. This stipulates a limitation on the population of Damascus and its countryside (keep it less than 7.5 million people) only to satisfy the household needs. Probably, this threshold is no more respected since the year 2000. New sources have to be found; otherwise, population in Damascus must be attracted to other regions richer in water (example ALJAZEERA). Economic priority will decide the choice between the former and the latter solution.
Sustained development necessitates new water sources, which may be obtained by different ways:
- Draining water from Golan Heights (unfortunately, Israel steals 500-600 million m3 a year).
- Applying the technique of humidity collection of the air (in Golan and Jabal Alsheik) may represent another solution.
- Draining water from the littoral is also possible, but it costs too much because of long distance and difference of altitude. The alternative may be in desalinization of Sea water in Tartous and pumping up to Homs plaines to support the internal tunnel, which supplies the source of Ain Alfigeh.
- Draining water from the Euphrates within a consensus among Syria, Turkey, and Iraq (including the draining to the Gulf, irrigation of Homs and Salamiah).
Knowing that water in the Thaems River in London (as big as Barada River in Damascus) is used 16 times before finishing its track in the sea, the author suggests to adopt the same principles with the Euphrates and the Tiger water.